Without UNIX, Linux or Android wouldn't exist: In April 1969, the mother of all operating systems was introduced to the world
The UNIX story begins with an unsuccessful attempt: MIT, General Electric and Bell Labs had been trying to develop an operating system for large computers since the middle of the 1960s. However, the system, which was known as Multics, could not fulfill the high expectations that had been riding on its back, and the Bell Labs team was removed from the project. However, giving up wasn't on the agenda of the group that was centered around Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson.

Name:  Unix-timeliine.jpg
Views: 947
Size:  103.0 KB


In 1969, they single-handedly developed a leaner version of Multics, which came to be known as Unics. In order to make it easier to port the system, which later came to be known as ‘Unix’, to other computer systems, Ritchie developed the C programming language. In 1972, UNIX was completely re-written in C.
Initially, Unix began to spread through the academic domain. Researchers at the University of California at Berkeley were particularly Fond of Unix: They developed the system further, thereby creating the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), which forms the basis of several operating systems that are still being used at various universities.

The Unix wars began when AT&T, the parent company of Bell Labs, tried to commercially market Unix under the name of ‘System V’, at the beginning of the 1980s: Several industrial consortium's fought over the unique standards under which Unix was supposed to be developed further.

Richard Stallman, a young programmer at MIT, rebelled against the commercialization plans, and founded the GNU project in 1983. His goal was to use nothing but free software to create a Unix-type operating system. However, the project was unable to develop the kernel, i.e. the core of the operating system. Only when the Finnish student Linus Torvalds released his Linux kernel (which was based on Unix) in 1991 did the free operating system become a reality.

Since April 1969, UNIX has gone from being a niche system to becoming the mother of all operating systems: There are more than 600 different variants of Linux alone. And iOS and Android, two of the descendants of Linux, have conquered the mobile world.